BMS battery system, commonly known as battery nanny or battery housekeeper, is mainly to intelligently manage and maintain each battery unit, prevent the battery from overcharging and over-discharging, extend the service life of the battery, and monitor the status of the battery. BMS can be divided into two types: high voltage BMS and low voltage BMS. Today, we will mainly explore BMS low voltage. Specifically, low-voltage BMS is designed to serve batteries with voltages of less than 60V and is typically found in lightweight electric vehicles, such as e-bikes, electric motorcycles, e-scooters, freight bikes, or small-scale renewable energy systems. In this comprehensive guide, let’s explore the importance and benefits of BMS systems for low-voltage applications, as well as the various considerations when choosing a low-voltage BMS solution.
Dig Deeper into the Low Voltage BMS
Definition and Purpose of Low Voltage BMS
Low voltage BMS is an electronic system dedicated to different types of batteries such as lithium-ion battery BMS, lithium polymer battery BMS, lead-acid battery BMS, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery BMS, and nickel-metal hydride battery BMS. It is suitable for battery systems with lower voltage and is usually used for battery service with a voltage of less than 60V. The main way to achieve this goal is by monitoring the key parameters of the battery pack, such as voltage, temperature, current, and SOC, and sending an alarm once there is any abnormality so that users can take timely measures to avoid accidents and ensure that the monitored battery is in a balanced, efficient and safe operation state.
Overview of Low Voltage Battery Cells and Packs
Low-voltage battery cells are the building blocks of battery packs in various applications, such as light BMS for electric vehicles and small-scale renewable energy systems. A battery cell, usually a lithium-ion battery, provides the necessary energy storage. When multiple battery cells are combined, they form a battery pack with the required voltage and capacity. The low voltage BMS is responsible for managing the behavior and characteristics of individual battery cells and the entire battery pack.
Core Functions of Low Voltage BMS
Monitoring Temperature and Voltage
Monitoring the temperature and voltage of the battery is one of the functions of the low voltage BMS. Monitoring battery temperature is critical as extreme temperatures can impact battery performance and lifetime. By continuously tracking the temperature, the BMS can implement the necessary measures to prevent overheating or extremely cold conditions and ensure that the battery operates within a safe temperature range. Voltage monitoring is equally important as it provides valuable insights into the state of charge and the health of the battery. The BMS keeps a close eye on the voltage level, alerting the user if it drops too low or rises to unsafe levels.
Ensuring Safe Operation and Preventing Overcharging
For battery-powered systems, safety is of Paramount importance. Preventing overcharge is another task of a low voltage battery management system. Overcharge of the battery will lead to battery overheating, electrolyte rupture, and even battery failure, which is easy to cause safety problems. During the charging process, the BMS monitors the charging status at any time to ensure that it is within a safe range and prevents any potential hazards.
Balancing Battery Cells to Maintain Uniform Capacity
In a battery pack, individual cells may have slightly different capacities due to manufacturing variations or different usage patterns. In order to ensure peak efficiency and prolong the overall lifespan of the battery pack, the battery management system engages in the process of battery equilibrium. Battery balancing redistributes charge among the cells, ensuring that they operate at the same capacity. By equalizing charging, the BMS helps prevent overcharging of any particular battery, maximizing the efficiency and longevity of the battery pack.
Protecting Against Over-discharge and Excessive Current
In the process of charging lithium batteries, as the voltage rises beyond the reasonable range, it will bring uncertain danger. The protective circuit’s overcharging safeguard feature involves continuously monitoring the battery pack’s voltage. As the battery approaches the upper limit of its safe voltage range during charging, the circuit interrupts the power supply to prevent further voltage increase, thereby providing a safeguarding function.
When the lithium battery supplies power to the load, the current will change with the change of voltage and power, when the current is very large, it is easy to burn out the protection board, battery, or equipment. The overcurrent protection feature of the protective circuit board is designed to continuously monitor the battery pack’s current during both the charging and discharging processes. If the current surpasses the designated safe threshold, the circuit will be deactivated to prevent the battery or equipment from potential harm caused by excessive current, thereby ensuring a safeguarding function.
Key Considerations to Optimize Performance and Extend Battery Lifespan
Optimizing the performance of low-voltage batteries can effectively extend their service life and save maintenance costs. Batteries can be effectively optimized from the following aspects:
Battery monitoring: Monitoring the status of the battery is the basic function of the LV BMS, including the estimation and calculation of some parameters, including voltage, current, temperature, electricity, SOC, SOH, SOP, and SOE. The battery management system can monitor these parameters and send alerts so that users can take timely measures to avoid accidents.
Cell balancing: Cell balancing is a key function of LV BMS, which ensures that each individual cell within the battery pack operates at the same level and capacity. Battery balancing is to eliminate the cell inconsistency generated during the use of the cell.
Temperature management: Temperature greatly affects the performance and life of batteries. The low-voltage BMS actively monitors and regulates battery temperature to prevent overheating or extreme cold conditions. By keeping the temperature within an ideal range, the daisy chain BMS contributes to prolonging battery lifespan and guaranteeing secure functionality.
Charge and discharge control: The low-voltage BMS controls the charging and discharge process to prevent situations such as overcharge, over-discharge, or overcurrent. By implementing smart charging algorithms and discharge limits, battery management systems prevent battery damage and help maintain their overall health and longevity.
By considering these critical factors and leveraging the features of a well-designed low-voltage BMS, enterprises can optimize performance, maximize service life, and ensure the reliable operation of battery-powered devices.
Where Low Voltage BMS Applies?
Although the power supported by LV BMS is smaller, it is also indispensable, and we can also find its presence in many fields and industries. Let’s take a look at it below:
Mobile devices and consumer electronics: Low-voltage BMS are often used in portable devices such as smartphones, tablets, handheld tools, etc., to ensure the normal operation of the device’s battery and the safety of consumers. Electronic devices in consumer electronics, such as VCRs and radios, can also benefit from the battery management capabilities of low-voltage BMS.
Home energy storage: Although high-voltage BMS are widely used in the energy storage space, certain home energy storage solutions may use low-voltage battery systems such as lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries. Low-voltage BMS can be used in home energy storage systems to ensure battery performance and safety by monitoring parameters such as voltage and current.
Small-scale solar systems: For small-scale solar charging solutions, such as portable chargers in camping, and outdoor activities, low-voltage ESS BMS can monitor and manage the battery charging and discharging process, providing consumers with a reliable source of energy.
Small energy storage systems: In certain small-scale energy storage projects, low-voltage battery systems may be used. These systems are commonly used for temporary energy storage, microgrid solutions, and more.
Low power applications: LV BMS is ideal for low power applications, such as wireless sensors, remote monitoring devices, etc., without worrying about voltage overload, protecting battery life and system stability.
Choosing the Right Low Voltage BMS Solution
Factors to Consider When Selecting a Low Voltage BMS Manufacturer
Selecting the right manufacturer for a low-voltage BMS solution is crucial to ensure a successful implementation. Here are some factors to consider when making this decision:
Expertise and experience: Look for a manufacturer or supplier with a proven track record in designing and manufacturing BMS solutions. Consider their expertise in low-voltage applications and experience in customizing LV battery management systems for different industries. MOKOEnergy has a deep understanding of the various types of battery packs and modules in the BMS industry, their different topologies, and low and high voltage battery systems to ensure the best performance and safety of our battery packs. At the same time, it is also beneficial to help enterprises have a more systematic and deep understanding of BMS expertise. In order to select the most suitable lV BMS products.
Custom functionality: Assess the manufacturer’s ability to customize the low-voltage BMS to your specific requirements. This includes their knowledge of your industry, battery chemistry, and application needs. Manufacturers with strong customization and design capabilities will be able to provide solutions that best match your business goals.
Quality and reliability: Make sure that manufacturers adhere to rigorous quality control procedures and adhere to industry regulations. Seek out certifications that showcase their dedication to delivering high-quality solutions for LV BMS. At MOKOEnergy, we recognize the importance of quality control processes in ensuring the reliability of our BMS solutions, so our products must all undergo comprehensive testing to ensure that they meet or exceed industry standards. The low-voltage BMS we produce comply with global certification standards, such as EN15194:2017, CE, FCC, CB, UL, etc. Demonstrate our commitment to quality and safety.
Scalability and future expansion: Consider whether the manufacturer can support your business growth and accommodate future expansion plans. The scalable low-voltage BMS solution will allow seamless integration with additional battery packs or systems to meet your needs.
Evaluating the Cost and ROI of Low Voltage BMS Implementation
It is important to evaluate the cost and return on investment (ROI) when considering the implementation of a low-voltage BMS.
Initial investment: Assess the upfront costs associated with the implementation of a custom battery management system, including hardware, software, and customization expenses if there is a customization requirement. Compare these costs to the potential advantages and savings of a BMS solution.
Long-term benefits: Take into account the lasting benefits and potential cost reductions that a low-voltage BMS can offer. This encompasses optimizing battery performance, prolonging operational lifespan, decreasing maintenance expenses, and bolstering overall system dependability. The potential ROI is calculated based on these gains.
Business-specific factors: Consider business-specific factors that can impact cost and ROI, such as the size of the battery system, the complexity of the application, and industry regulations to be met. These factors can influence the overall financial impact of implementing a BMS solution.
Importance of Ongoing Maintenance, Testing, and Support
Choosing a low-voltage BMS solution is not only the initial implementation, but also ongoing maintenance, testing, and support.
Maintenance and testing: Ensure that the manufacturer or supplier provides guidelines and recommendations for regular maintenance and testing of the battery management system. Regular maintenance helps detect any potential issues early and ensures that the low-voltage BMS continues to function optimally over time.
Technical support: Evaluate the level of technical support provided by the manufacturer, such as document access, training resource distribution, and responsive customer support, to perform troubleshooting and resolve any issues that may arise.
Firmware and software updates: Confirm the timeliness of firmware and software updates of the battery management system, and it is necessary to update the performance and functions of the low-voltage BMS with The Times.
As we continue to rely on batteries to power our lives, the role of low voltage BMS is becoming more and more indispensable. Through this blog, we have gained a certain understanding of the functions, importance, and factors to consider when choosing a low voltage BMS. By choosing a qualified LV BMS product, you will definitely get more results in your work and life with less effort.
As a well-known wholesale low voltage BMS manufacturer, MOKOEnergy has the most advanced equipment and the most professional R&D team when dealing with low voltage BMS. We can customize low voltage BMS solutions according to your particular requirements, covering the entire process from design and production to testing. Get in touch for a complimentary consultation by clicking here.
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