Guide to the EV Battery Supply Chain in 2024

Table of Contents
A flowchart illustrating the electric vehicle battery supply chain in 2023, depicting the stages of mining, refinery, battery cell production, battery pack assembly, end-use in vehicles, and recycling, along with the relevant materials and components involved.

With the rising momentum of environmentally friendly initiatives and related policies, the automotive industry has undergone one of the most dramatic transformations in its history—shifting from conventional gasoline-powered vehicles to electric and hybrid technologies. This transition has propelled the global shift toward electrification and has catalyzed significant changes within the entire electric vehicle (EV) battery supply chain. In this article, our objective is to offer a comprehensive view of the present status of the global EV battery supply chain, examine the operational dynamics of the supply chain, and investigate potential future trends.

Analysis of the Current Status of the Global Electric Vehicle Industry

Market Sales

Driven by factors such as government policy support, continuous technological advancements, and cost reductions, the global electric vehicle market has experienced rapid growth. Over the past two years, global electric vehicle sales have increased from 3.2 million units in 2020 to 10.3 million units in 2022. According to Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s projections, global sales of electric passenger vehicles are expected to rise to 13.6 million units this year, with approximately 75% being pure electric vehicles.

Global Electric Vehicle Sales from 2015 to 2023

Regional Distribution

The growth of the electric vehicle market is primarily concentrated in North America, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific region. However, China leads as the country with the largest number of electric vehicles, accounting for 44% of the market share. This is followed by Europe (26%), the United States (18%), Japan (8%), and other countries (4%).

Electric Vehicle Market Share by Country

Market Structure

As of the end of 2021, pure electric vehicles held the majority share of the electric vehicle market, accounting for approximately 74%. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles constituted a smaller portion of the market, at approximately 22%. Fuel cell vehicles had a very limited market share, accounting for only 4%, but they are gradually growing.


In the passenger vehicle market, pure electric vehicles have a higher market share, constituting 80% of the market, while plug-in hybrid electric vehicles account for the remaining 20%. In the commercial vehicle market, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles dominate with a market share of 70%, while pure electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles each hold a 15% market share.

Components of the Electric Vehicle Battery Supply Chain

As EV sales continue to break records, supply chain considerations have become a focal point. Batteries typically account for 30% to 40% of the EV battery value chain, and the production and usage of EV batteries can be categorized into four main stages:

Upstream: Mining operations extract raw materials such as lithium, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and graphite.

Midstream: Refineries and processing firms refine the raw materials to produce minerals suitable for technology.

Downstream: Battery manufacturers integrate various components to create a complete functioning unit. This process involves assembling cells and modules, incorporating electronic components and control systems, and then supplying the assembled units to automakers. Notably, certain automakers like Ford and Stellantis have formed collaborations with battery manufacturers to independently manufacture batteries for the electric vehicles they market.

End-of-Life: Once batteries have fulfilled their initial function, they have the potential for reuse or recycling.

Managing all these components effectively plays a critical role in delivering dependable, top-notch products at competitive price points. Achieving this goal requires strategic planning to determine which elements should be outsourced rather than handled internally by each company within the supply chain network. This entails taking into account factors like cost-efficiency, speed of delivery, adherence to safety regulations, and environmental sustainability considerations. Additionally, it’s essential to consider how various components interact with each other to ensure that unforeseen issues related to logistics or compatibility between different components used during assembly do not further complicate matters.

Electric Vehicle Battery Supply Chain Phases

Challenges in Developing an EV Battery Supply Chain

The development of the EV battery supply chain is not without challenges. These fall into three broad categories: financial, technical, and logistical.


Batteries are the most expensive component in an EV, accounting for 30% to 40% of the EV’s value, and the entire EV supply chain must be carefully managed to remain cost-effective. This may include finding ways to reduce the cost of raw materials or finding new sources of funding, such as government subsidies or tax breaks.

However, finding the funds needed to develop a supply chain can be difficult. Potential investors must be convinced that the project is viable and will eventually pay off.


The technology used in batteries needs to keep up with the demand for electric vehicles, which means developing more efficient batteries with higher capacity to store energy, as well as battery management systems that can keep batteries up to safety standards at all times. It will also need to keep up with advances in charging infrastructure and other related technologies, such as fast chargers and wireless power transmission systems.

Ensuring compatibility between different types of batteries and their associated chargers is another challenge that must be addressed when creating a successful EV battery supply chain. Hardware and software must work in harmony so as not to impede progress or cause delays due to incompatibility.


The battery from one place to another place if you can’t effectively be completed, the cost of will greatly increase operating costs. Enterprises need to consider factors such as route optimization, fuel consumption, and loading and unloading time to minimize transportation costs.

Another major challenge involves ensuring security at every link in the EV battery supply chain to mitigate any potential risks involving theft or counterfeiting activities during transportation or storage. Including the implementation of the appropriate tracking system, authentication protocol, and encryption measures (if applicable).

Overall, developing an efficient EV battery supply chain requires careful consideration of various technical, financial, and logistical aspects that may affect the overall functioning of the system over time. By considering these key factors before implementation, firms can ensure the creation of a strong and reliable network that can meet current market needs, while remaining competitive in the long term.

The Role of Each Industry in the Supply Chain


Manufacturers play an important role in the EV battery supply chain. According to BNEF in a recent report, in 2030, the global production of lithium-ion batteries is expected to reach a year 1 terawatt hours (TWh), greater than 2019 0.24 TWh. This highlights the need for manufacturers to develop effective strategies and processes to meet this growing demand.

In terms of raw materials, all kinds of suppliers from all over the world mine cobalt, graphite, nickel, and other metals used in cathode and anode materials. The cost of these materials may be due to geopolitical factors, these factors may affect its availability or pricing. Therefore, manufacturers must have contingency plans in place when sourcing these raw materials. They should also consider recycling technologies as an alternative way to reduce costs while reducing the environmental impacts associated with sourcing new material inputs.

The manufacturer is also responsible for assembling the cells into battery packs according to customer requirements; Some companies even design specifically for certain applications or the needs of customers and custom solutions. To prevent possible safety concerns like thermal runaway incidents or fires resulting from defective components during operation, they need to guarantee that quality standards are upheld at every stage of the process. In addition, throughout the development stage should strictly follow the test protocol, to ensure the best performance of large-scale deployment.


Logistics companies play a key role in the global EV battery supply chain. They are responsible for the transportation of goods and materials, ensuring efficient delivery of raw materials to manufacturers and delivery of finished products to final customers. Logistics can also help optimize inventory levels within the lithium battery value chain and reduce costs associated with excess inventory or stockouts. In addition, logistics companies provide visibility of cargo tracking along the entire route from production to customer delivery and real-time communication between stakeholders.

Tech companies

Tech companies can partner with EV manufacturers and suppliers to offer a range of services designed to improve customer experience and satisfaction. Tech giants like Google and Microsoft, for example, have partnered with EV makers to develop software for autonomous driving applications or AI dashboards.

Tech companies also have an essential role to play in providing insight into consumer buying patterns. By using analytical tools, they can collect data about customer preferences in terms of features, design, and safety, which can help EV manufacturers make decisions during the product design process.

Benefits of Investing in a Robust Global EV Battery Supply Chain

Investing in a robust global EV battery supply chain can bring many benefits to the automotive industry. According to Frost & Sullivan research, global electric vehicle sales are expected to exceed 8 million units by 2030.

Improve the Efficiency of the Value Chain in the Automotive Industry

Investing in a robust and well-established supply chain can substantially diminish production delays caused by constrained battery supplies, as many manufacturers have had to prolong their production timelines. A well-integrated supplier network will allow automakers to respond more quickly and efficiently in the face of unexpected changes in consumer demand or technological advances.

Improve Customer Satisfaction

Customers today expect their vehicles to be delivered within a certain timeframe; Getting a reliable battery ensures that they will receive their car as promised without any extra waiting time. In addition, customers also want to know the status of their orders at every stage of the process; Effective management of communication among stakeholders involved in the supply chain helps to ensure a smooth transaction experience.

Supply Chain Future Dynamics

Recently, the global electric vehicle battery supply chain has seen an exponential increase in demand due to the increasing adoption of the technology. According to the report BloombergNEF, global electric car sales rose 50% in 2020, and are expected to maintain rapid growth. This surge in demand has led to several innovations and trends within the industry that have enabled manufacturers to produce high-quality batteries at lower costs.

Here are three potential dynamics for the future of the global EV battery supply chain:

Improve the energy density: High energy density plays a pivotal role in evaluating electric vehicles as it significantly boosts the range per charge. In recent years, there has been notable advancement in enhancing the energy density of the lithium battery supply chain. Innovations such as the use of nanomaterials, solid electrolyte separators, and others allow for larger storage capacities and smaller sizes, making them more effective.

Cost reduction: With growing demand from global automobile manufacturers, many measures have been taken to reduce production costs without compromising safety standards or performance levels. Automakers currently employ innovative technologies like automated production lines to cut labor expenses and expedite assembly, ultimately leading to reduced consumer prices.

Environmental sustainability: Manufacturers in various sectors are increasingly emphasizing sustainability efforts, actively incorporating eco-friendly manufacturing methods and adopting responsible disposal practices, all aimed at reducing their carbon emissions and preserving our planet’s resources. Specifically, companies in the electric vehicle battery manufacturing sector are actively investigating methods for recycling used lithium ion battery supply chains, aiming to reduce the environmental harm stemming from the toxic waste produced during the manufacturing process.

MOKOEnergy: Your Reliable BMS Board Provider

In the development of an electric vehicle battery supply chain, choosing a reliable partner is very important. MOKOEnergy is a company focused on green energy storage products, providing products and solutions such as high-quality multi-domain BMS and battery protection boards. With more than 70 professional scientific researchers and up to 17 years of experience in the field of electric vehicle batteries, we can help achieve higher performance and safety standards in all links in the supply chain. Here are some features of MOKOEnergy’s clean energy industry chain and products:

High-performance BMS products: The battery management system is an important part of the battery and battery module, its reliability is very important to ensure the best battery life and performance. MOKOEnergy uses only high-quality materials and components, and our products undergo comprehensive testing to ensure they meet or exceed industry standards.

Customized solutions: MOKOEnergy understands each customer’s needs are unique, so we can provide customized BMS and board solutions, to meet the needs of different projects and applications. Whether you are developing a small power tool or a large electric bus, MOKOEnergy has the right solution.

Technical support: MOKOEnergy’s experienced team of engineers in the design and development of various applications of BMS and panels has rich experience in solutions, including lithium ion battery value chain, battery, and energy storage systems. We apply our experience in product development to a wide range of applications, including light electric vehicles, power systems, portable devices, and fixed battery packs.

Global market coverage: MOKOEnergy’s products and services are not only suitable for the domestic market but also can meet the needs of the international market. We have forged extensive global partnerships capable of providing support to projects on a worldwide scale.

In conclusion, MOKOEnergy enjoys a high reputation in the industry and has received many positive reviews and recommendations from satisfied customers. Our dedication to quality, technical proficiency, and customer assistance has enabled us to establish a devoted customer following.


Investing in a robust global EV battery supply chain will bring numerous benefits to the automotive industry. The challenges posed by these supply chains are substantial, but they can be overcome with careful planning and execution. This can greatly impact our environment and economy in the future while creating new opportunities for those involved in all aspects of the industry.


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