How Much Do You Know About BMS Function

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A lithium-ion battery pack is a complex system that requires advanced electronics and software to operate safely, efficiently, and reliably. At the heart of these electronics is the battery management system. But what does a BMS do? In this article, we’ll explore the key BMS  function and purpose.

Key Functions of Battery Management System

A BMS, or battery management system, is an electronic system that manages a rechargeable battery pack. Its primary job is to monitor and control battery conditions to protect the cells from operating outside safe parameters that could lead to damage or unsafe conditions.

For lithium-ion and other chemistries that are volatile and sensitive to over-voltage, under-voltage, overheating, etc., having proper battery management is critical. The BMS helps lithium batteries operate properly and safely, greatly extending their life and performance. Let’s take a closer look at the core battery management system functions and why the role of BMS is so important.

A BMS performs several crucial functions to manage the battery pack. The most important function of BMS in battery include:

Functions of BMS

Cell Balancing

One key task a BMS performs is cell balancing. This means that in a battery pack containing multiple cells connected in series and parallel, the BMS actively balances the voltage and state of charge of each cell.

Without balancing, some cells tend to charge faster or discharge slower than others. This results in differences in voltage between cells in the same pack. Over time, these differences lead to some cells becoming overcharged or undercharged. Cell balancing ensures no cell goes outside safe levels, extending battery life.

Charging Control

The BMS carefully controls the charging process of the battery pack. It regulates the charging voltage and current to ensure cells are charged fully but not overcharged.

The BMS monitors cell voltages and ends charging when cells reach full capacity. It prevents external chargers from delivering too much voltage or current, which could damage cells. Proper charging control is essential for safe operation and longevity.

Discharging Control

Similarly, the BMS monitors and controls discharging to prevent excessive discharge that could over-deplete cells and lead to damage. It regulates the discharge current and can shut off loads if cell voltages get too low.

This discharge control protects cells from permanent damage during Abuse like short circuits. The BMS only allows discharge within safe limits.

Overvoltage Protection

If cell voltages rise above a safe threshold during charging or other conditions, the BMS disconnects the battery from the charger or load to prevent further voltage increase. This overvoltage protection prevents cell damage and dangerous conditions like thermal runaway.

Undervoltage Protection

On the flip side, the BMS disconnects the battery from loads if the cell voltage drops too low to prevent over-discharge and cell reversal. This undervoltage protection ensures cells are not depleted excessively during operation or storage.

Overcurrent Protection

The BMS contains current regulation and limiting functions to prevent external loads from drawing too much current and raising cell temperatures dangerously high. By limiting current to safe levels, cells avoid damage from overheating and short circuits.

Over Temperature Protection

Closely monitoring cell temperatures and cooling or heating cells as needed is another vital BMS function. The BMS keeps cells within an ideal temperature range for safe operation and longevity through active thermal management.

If temperatures exceed safe limits, the BMS will disconnect loads to allow cooling. High cell temperatures can be very destructive without proper thermal monitoring and control.

These are the key functions a BMS performs to actively manage the battery and protect it from damage at all times. But why is battery management so crucial in battery packs?

The Purpose and Benefits of a Battery Management System

The BMS functions described above are all aimed at ensuring the safe, reliable, efficient, and optimal operation of the battery pack. In particular, the benefits and purpose of BMS are the following:

Extends Battery Life and Reliability

By continuously monitoring cell conditions and only allowing operation within conservative limits, cell aging, and degradation mechanisms are drastically reduced. With a BMS preventing abuse of cells, the battery will last far longer and experience fewer failures.

Accurate Monitoring of Battery Status

The BMS provides critical data and alerts about the current battery state, including cell voltages, temperatures, currents, and more. This information enables smart charging and load control and helps detect impending issues.

Monitoring Battery states
(Pic via Vecteezy)

Early Detection of Faults and Failures

Subtle changes and anomalies in cell data can indicate an impending failure. A BMS can detect cell drift and other abnormalities at an early stage, allowing preventative action before catastrophic BMS failure occurs.

Allows Larger Battery Construction

Large battery packs with hundreds or thousands of cells are only made possible by battery management. Manually managing so many cells is impossible – the BMS makes huge packs practical.

Improves Battery Efficiency and Performance

Precise monitoring and control of cell conditions allow them to operate at peak efficiency. Performance is also optimized by keeping cells balanced and in the ideal temperature range.

In summary, the BMS extends battery life, enhances performance and efficiency, provides critical status data, and prevents catastrophic failures – enabling safe utilization of lithium batteries. Battery management is essential for realizing the full potential of modern battery technologies.

MOKOENERGY’s Advanced Battery Management Solutions

Lithium battery packs have fundamentally transformed industries from electric vehicles to data centers due to their high energy density, long cycle life, and falling costs. However realizing these benefits requires expertise in battery management systems.

Here at MOKOENERGY, we have years of experience developing battery solutions for a wide range of BMS applications. MOKOENERGY prides itself on having professional capabilities in BMS design, customization, and integration.

Our skilled engineering teams carefully assess each project’s requirements and constraints. We then design a robust BMS solution tailored for the application, with safety and reliability as top priorities.

We collaborate closely with customers throughout the process to deliver battery systems with fully customized BMS solutions that meet their exact needs. MOKOENERGY also supplies batteries with off-the-shelf BMS units when a standardized design fits an application. We will also tell you what is a BMS for battery or what is battery BMS.

With strict testing and some of the industry’s most experienced battery management engineers, MOKOENERGY can tackle even the most demanding battery projects. Our BMS capabilities enable safe, reliable, high-performance battery storage across transportation, data center, marine, renewable energy, and industrial applications.

Conclusion – The Key to Unlocking Battery Potential

Rechargeable batteries are complex electrochemical systems that require advanced electronics and software to control for optimal results. The battery management system is the brain responsible for keeping cells operating safely and efficiently at all times.

By monitoring parameters like voltage, current, and temperature, and actively balancing cells, the BMS protects batteries from abuse and extends their lifetime dramatically. Precise control of charging and discharging also improves performance and utilization. While the BMS itself is essentially invisible to the end user, it is an enabling technology that allows modern batteries to fulfill their potential.

Lithium-based batteries in particular require very sophisticated BMS solutions due to their volatility and sensitivity to operating conditions. However, with proper battery management, the power, energy density, cycle life, and safety of lithium cells can be realized. MOKOENERGY develops customized BMS designs with multiple layers of protection to match each project’s requirements.

Battery management systems aren’t just about safety – they are essential to unlocking the capabilities of leading-edge battery chemistries. With the rise of vehicles, grid storage, and devices using lithium battery packs, quality BMS solutions will only increase in importance. Though often overlooked by the end user, capable battery management is the unsung hero allowing batteries to perform their vital and growing roles in society.

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